Fortunately for all stakeholders, concussion research has rapidly grown. However, due to a concussions being a mild traumatic brain injury, care must be a conglomeration of research and symptomatic treatment practices as there is no easy solution as the symptoms can appear endless.
Rest is not the only option and medications, although sometimes necessary, are not slowing down the brain degeneration or cumulative effects of concussions.
Dr. St. Laurent is a concussion doctor who utilizes all aspects of research to address the root causes of concussions beginning with the brain prior to a concussion or the immediate neurometabolic cascade.
If you or someone you loves sustains a concussion come in immediately as the first ten days are the most vital.
The links below are some research articles, mostly abstracts since time is short to help further educate all stakeholders.
1. The relationship between gender and postconcussion symptoms after sport-related mild traumatic brain injury. Preiss-Farzanegan SJ, Chapman B, Wong TM, Wu J, Bazarian JJ. Source University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rochester, NY, USA.
2. The "value added" of neurocognitive testing after sports-related concussion. Van Kampen DA, Lovell MR, Pardini JE, Collins MW, Fu FH. Source: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
3.Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2006 May;21(4):339-47. Epub 2006 Jun 9.
Examination of postconcussion-like symptoms in healthy university students: relationships to subjective and objective neuropsychological function performance.Wang Y, Chan RC, Deng Y. Source Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
This study examined postconcussion-like symptoms in a group of university students and explored their relationships to neuropsychological function performance. A sample of 124 students was recruited. All of the participants received the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) and completed a comprehensive set of neuropsychological tests. They reported a relatively high base rate of postconcussion-like symptoms. The most frequently endorsed items were "fatigue" (76.9%), "longer time to think" (60.3%), "poor concentration" (58.7%), "sleep disturbance" (50.4%), and "frustration" (46.3%). There were no significant differences between low symptom reporters and high symptom reporters, except for self-reported dysexecutive problems. A comparison of the healthy high symptom reporters and a convenient sample of traumatic brain injury patients revealed that the patients performed significantly worse on neuropsychological functions than the high symptom reporters, despite non-significant differences between symptom endorsement. Our findings demonstrate that: (a) the base rate of postconcussion-like symptoms in a group of healthy university students is relatively high and (b) postconcussion symptom (PCS) is not related to neuropsychological functions in normal people.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;81(10):1116-22. Epub 2010 Aug 27.
Mild traumatic brain injury and Postconcussion Syndrome: a neuropsychological perspective.Williams WH, Potter S, Ryland H. Source School of Psychology, Washington Singer Laboratories, Exeter University, Exeter, UK.
Symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury typically resolve within days or weeks. However, a significant group of patients may report symptoms of Post-concussional Syndrome (PCS) weeks, months and years postinjury. This review presents an overview of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment options for PCS. The authors review the evidence for factors that may predict such symptoms. At early phases, there are associations between neurological signs and symptoms, neurocognitive functions and self reports. Over time, such associations become less coherent, and psychological issues become particularly relevant. An accurate understanding of neurological and psychosocial factors at play in PCS is crucial for appropriate management of symptoms at various points postinjury.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PM R. 2013 Feb;5(2):142-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.08.021.
Update on pharmaceutical intervention for disorders of consciousness and agitation after traumatic brain injury in children.
Kennedy Krieger Institute; Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine; and Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD(⁎). Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Responsiveness and agitation are common targets for pharmaceutical intervention after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. This focused review presents a critical discussion of the limited literature available on the use of medications for disorders of consciousness and agitation in children with TBI. For disorders of consciousness, evidence from several small studies supports a potential benefit of dopaminergic agents for improving responsiveness in some children with lower levels of function after TBI. Larger studies, likely requiring multicenter collaborations, are needed to more definitively address questions regarding the use of medications for responsiveness in children with TBI. The literature regarding use of pharmaceutical agents for agitation in children with TBI is even more limited. The dearth of literature regarding the effects of medications used for agitation in children with TBI highlights the need for additional basic and clinical science contributions in this area.
Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.